Mi Casa es su Casa? Examining Airbnb Hospitality Exchange Practices in a Developing Economy
A librarian, a politician, a UX expert and a cyberbully walk into a special issue
Permeability, Interoperability and Velocity: Entangled Dimensions of Infrastructural Grind at the Intersection of Blockchain and Shipping
Online Idea Management for Civic Engagement: A Study on the Benefits of Integration with Social Networking
Community of practice (CoP) is a primary framework in social computing research that addresses learning and organizing specific practices in online communities. However, the classic CoP theory does not provide a detailed account for how practices change or evolve. Against the backdrop of a rapidly changing occupational landscape, it is crucial to understand how people participate in online communities focused on practices that have a volatile nature, as well as how social computing tools can best support them. In this paper, we examine user experience (UX) design as a volatile practice that has no coherent body of knowledge and lacks a concrete path for newcomers to become a UX professional. Our study site is the ?/r/userexperience? subreddit, an online UX community where practitioners socialize and learn. Using a mixed-methods approach, we identified five distinct social roles in relation to knowledge production and dissemination in the online community of volatile practice. We demonstrate that knowledge production is highly distributed, involving the participation and sensemaking of community members of varied levels of experience. We discuss how online platforms support online community of volatile practice.
FOSS communities are increasingly employing a sponsored participation model where free, open source software development is combined with paid customer support and feature development to ensure community sustainability. This makes it difficult for peripheral users, who are not part of the core administrative or sponsoring organization to participate meaningfully. The research study presented in this paper explores how a hybrid FOSS community ? one where commercial and volunteer developer effort are combined to deliver a free/libre, open source software product ? enables or constrains the participation of product users. Learning how to act in a system of situated cognition requires a ?cognitive apprenticeship? that teaches participants how to engage in authentic domain activity ? i.e. how to engage in community processes, Learning how to participate in a distributed system of social cognition requires a ?social apprenticeship? by which participants become enculturated in the system of meanings, values, norms, and behaviors that govern community identity and membership and learn to build social capital. These forms of apprenticeship were related to the cognitive and social translations produced by affordances of the socio-technical participation architecture, to demonstrate how affordances support two interrelated forms of understanding, which act to support participation in very different ways. The contribution to theory is to provide an interior view of key community participation mechanisms, affordances, and cognitive (knowledge-related) or social (identity and worldview related) translations revealed as non-technical users engage with Hybrid FOSS community processes. This perspective has largely been missing from the literature. Our contribution to practice is provided by the explanation of how four distinct categories of affordance provide cognitive and social apprenticeship benefits. These provide a framework which, when coupled with the detailed examples of affordances provided in the paper, will allow designers of online community participation architecture to plan for legitimate peripheral user participation.
Cyberbullying is a major cyber issue that is common among adolescents. Recent reports show that more than one out of five students in the United States is a victim of cyberbullying. Majority of cyberbullying incidents occur on public social media platforms such as Twitter. Automated cyberbullying detection methods can help prevent cyberbullying before the harm is done on the victim. In this study, we analyze two corpora of cyberbullying Tweets from similar incidents to construct and validate an automated detection model. Our method emphasizes on the two claims that are supported by our results. First, despite other approaches that assume that cyberbullying instances use vulgar or profane words, we show that they do not necessarily contain negative words. Second, we highlight the importance of context and the characteristics of actors involved and their position in the network structure in detecting cyberbullying rather than only considering the textual content in our analysis.
Targeted social media advertising based on psychometric user profiling has emerged as an effective way of reaching individuals who are predisposed to accept and be persuaded by the advertising message. This paper argues that in the case of political advertising, this may present a democratic and ethical challenge. Hypertargeting methods such as psychometrics can ?crowd out? political communication with opposing views due to individual attention and time limitations, creating inequities in the access to information essential for voting decisions. The use of psychometrics also appears to have been used to spread both information and misinformation through social media in recent elections in the U.S. and Europe. This paper is an applied ethics study of these methods in the context of democratic processes and compared to purely commercial situations. The ethical approach is based on the theoretical, contractarian work of John Rawls which serves as a lens through which the author examines whether the rights of individuals, as Rawls attributes them, are violated by this practice. The paper concludes that within a Rawlsian framework, use of psychometrics in commercial advertising on social media platforms, though not immune to criticism, is not necessarily unethical. In a democracy, however, the individual cannot abandon the consumption of political information, and since using psychometrics in political campaigning makes access to such information unequal, it violates Rawlsian ethics and should be regulated.